fermenting

Discussion in 'Curing' started by jomama, Jun 29, 2016.

  1. jomama

    jomama Newbie

    I have been reading a lot about curing the sausage. I can't seem to get a definitive answer on how long to ferment the sausage before I place it in my 52 degrees chamber. I am going to try to make a Soppressata and possibly a Cacciatore type sausages. I am using Bactoferm F-LC. My fermenting chamber will be at about 90 degrees and hopefully I can keep the humidity high or I might just mist every 8-10 hrs. How long does the product stay in the fermenting chamber? Thanks for any help

    Jomama
     
  2. atomicsmoke

    atomicsmoke Master of the Pit OTBS Member

    What does the culture package say?

    Fermenting time is specific to the culture and temperature. I used T-SPX and fermented 48h at 25C.
     
    Last edited: Jun 29, 2016
  3. daveomak

    daveomak Smoking Guru OTBS Member SMF Premier Member

    This article is from Wedliny-Domowe...  a site Marianski is associated with..

     

    Fermentation Standards for Making Fermented Sausages

    USA Standards for Making Fermented Sausages


    Fermented sausages must be fermented within certain time, otherwise product will spoil and might become dangerous.

    In the USA the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the United States department of Agriculture requires that the shelf-stable dry sausages be nitrite cured, fermented, smoked, reach a final pH of 5.0 or less, and have a moisture/protein ratio of 1.9:1 or less.

    Dry sausages are products that, as a result of bacterial action or direct acidulation should reach a pH of 5.3 or less and are then dried to remove 25-50% of the moisture, resulting in a moisture/protein ratio complying with the standards.

    Semi-dry sausages are products, that as a result of bacterial action or direct acidulation should reach a pH of 5.3 or less and are then dried to remove 15% of the moisture, resulting in a moisture/protein ratio of 3.1:1 or less. Some semidry susages receive a pasteurization treatment following the fermentation period and some are shelf stable. Since the pH is lowered during the fermentation period, the degree-hour concept applies only to the time required to reach a pH of 5.3.

    Fermented and acidulated sausages (citric acid, lactic acid or GDL added) shall attain a pH of 5.3 or lower within the proper time frame (defined in temperature-degrees below) in order to control the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli 0157:H and Staphylococcus aureus.

    During fermentation of sausages to a pH 5.3, it is necessary to limit the time during which the sausage is exposed to temperatures exceeding 60° F (15.6° C), otherwise the product will spoil, even though the recommended pH was attained. This time frame is temperature dependent and these are the following criteria:
    Time in F degree-hours above 60° F (16° C)Maximum chamber temperature
    less than 1200less than 90° F (32° C)
    < 100090-100° F (32-38° C)
    < 900greater than 100° F (38° C)

    Degrees are measured as the excess over 60° F (15.6° C), the critical temperature at which staphylococcal growth effectively begins.

    Constant Temperature Fermentation

    Time in F degree-hours above 60° F (16° C)Chamber temperatureMaximum hours to pH 5.3
    ° F° C
    1200752480
    1200802760
    1200853048
    1000903233
    1000953528
    10001003825
    9001054120
    9001104418

    The above table provides maximum hours that a product may be fermented at given constant fermentation temperature (measured in ° F) to obtain pH 5.3. For example, at 80° F constant temperature a sausage must reach pH 5.3 within 60 hours or less. Those hours can also be calculated for any temperature.

    Example A

    Sausage fermented for 48 hours at the constant temperature 86° F (30° C) to pH of 5.3.

    For the calculation time in degrees over 60° F (16° C) is taken and:

    Degrees: 86 - 60 = 26

    Hours: 48

    Degree-hours (above 60° F) = 26 x 48 = 1248 degree hours. The result fails the guidelines of 1200 degree-hours by 48 hours. The time has to be decreased by 2 hours:

    Degree-hours = 26 x 46 = 1196 degree-hours. Process A passes guidelines of 1200 degree-hours.

    Example B

    Constant 90° F for 40 hours with a pH decline to 5.3

    Degrees: 90 - 60 = 30

    Hours: 40

    Degree-hours: 30 x 40 = 1200 degree-hours

    Process B fails the guideline limit of 1000 degree-hours.

    Variable Temperature Fermentation


    In many cases fermentation proceeds at different temperatures and for each temperature setting, a separate degree-hours are calculated and then added together. In testing each process, each step-up in the progression is analyzed for the number of degree-hours it contributes, with the highest temperature used in the fermentation process determining the degree-hour limitation. Degree hours is calculated for each temperature during fermentation.

    Example C

    Time in F degree-hours above 60° F (16° C)Chamber temperature° FAdjusted TemperatureDegrees ResultMaximum hours to pH 5.3
    10 hrs7575 - 60 =1510 x 15 = 150
    10 hrs8585 - 60 =2510 x 25 = 250
    14 hrs9595 - 60 =3514 x 35 = 490
    Total F degree-hours:890


    In the above example a product was fermented at three different temperatures (75, 85 and 95° F) for a total time of 34 hours. The total sum of the calculated degree-hours is 890 hours which is less than the maximum of 1000 hours for 90 - 100° F temperature range. Process C passes the guidelines.

    Example D

    Time in F degree-hours above 60° F (16° C)Chamber temperature ° FAdjusted TemperatureDegrees ResultMaximum hours to pH 5.3
    10 hrs7575 - 60 =1510 x 15 = 150
    12 hrs8585 - 60 =2512 x 25 = 300
    18 hrs9898 - 60 =3818 x 38 = 684
    Total F degree-hours:1134


    Process D fails the guideline because the limit is set at 1000 degree-hours for these times and temperatures and the process has taken 1134 degree-hours to reach pH 5.3

    Understanding these tables is of utmost importance as one can set his own fermentation temperatures and times without blindly relaying on unproven recipes and be in strict compliance with the government standards. Besides, it provides a great deal of satisfaction knowing that the process is safe and that we are in total control.

    Canadian Fermentation Standards for Making Fermented Sausages


    (MH MOP, Chapter 14.10.3 (15) - Fermented Meat Products)

    As most of the world uses metric system we enclosing Canadian Food Inspection Agency standards for fermentation times which are based on degrees Centigrade. Those standards are based on degree/temperatures and the same starting temperature of 15.6° C (60° F) is used. At this temperature (15.6° C, 60° F) Staphylococcus aureus starts to grow and produce toxins.

    Degree/Hours are the product of time as measured in hours at a particular fermentation temperature multiplied by the degrees over 15.6° C (60° F).

    Degree/hours = time (hours) x temperature in excess of 15.6° C (60° F). Fermented sausage must reach pH 5.3 or lower within certain time, depending on temperature. The reason being that at pH < 5.3 Staphylococcus aureus growth is inhibited.
    Time in C degree-hours above 15.6° C (60° F)Maximum fermentation temperature
    less than 665less than 33° C, (90° F)
    < 55533-37° C (90 - 100° F)
    < 500greater than 37° C, (100° F)

    Constant Temperature Fermentation


    The table below provides maximum hours that a product may be fermented at given constant fermentation temperature (measured in ° C) to obtain pH 5.3. For example at 86° F constant temperature a sausage must reach pH 5.3 within 46.2 hours or less. Those hours can also be calculated for any temperature and the following examples demonstrate how.
    Degree (C)-hours limit for the corresponding temperatureChamber temperatureMaximum hours to pH 5.3
    ° F° C
    6656820150.0
    66571.622103.4
    66575.22478.9
    66578.82663.8
    66582.42853.6
    665863046.2
    66589.63240.5
    55591.43331.8
    55593.23430.1
    555953528.6
    55596.83627.2
    55598.63725.9
    500100.43822.3
    5001044020.5
    500107.64218.9
    500111.24417.6
    500114.84616.4
    500118.44815.4
    5001225014.5

    Example A

    Fermentation room temperature is a constant 26° C. It takes 55 hours for the pH to reach 5.3.

    Degrees above 15.6° C: 26 - 15.6 = 10.4

    Hours to reach pH of 5.3: 55

    Degree/Hours calculation:(10.4) x (55) = 572 degree/hours

    The corresponding degree/hours limit (less than 33° C) is 665 degree/hours.

    Conclusion: Process A passes the test because its degree/hours is less than the limit.

    Example B

    Fermentation Room temperature is a constant 35° C. It takes 40 hours for the pH to reach 5.3.

    Degrees above 15.6° C: 35 - 15.6 = 19.4

    Hours to reach pH of 5.3:  40

    Degree/Hours calculation: (19.4) x (40) = 776 degree/hours

    The corresponding degree/hours limit (between 33 and 37° C) is 555 degree/hours.

    Conclusion: Process B fails the test because its degree/hours exceeds the limit.

    Example C

    Fermentation Room temperature is a constant 25° C. It takes 60 hours for the pH to reach 5.3.

    Degrees above 15.6° C: 25 - 15.6 = 9.4

    Hours to reach pH of 5.3: 60

    Degree/Hours calculation: (9.4) x (60) = 564 degree/hours

    The corresponding degree/hours limit (less than 33° C) is 665 degree/hours.

    Conclusion: Process C passes the test because its degree/hours is less than the limit.

    Variable Temperature Fermentation


    In many cases fermentation proceeds at different temperatures and for each temperature setting, a separate degree-hours are calculated and then added together. In testing each process, each step-up in the progression is analyzed for the number of degree-hours it contributes, with the highest temperature used in the fermentation process determining the degree-hour limitation. Degree hours is calculated for each temperature during fermentation.

    Example D

    It takes 35 hours for product to reach a pH of 5.3 or less. Fermentation room temperature is 24° C for the first 10 hours, 30° C for second 10 hours and 35°C for the final 15 hours.

    Time in C degree-hours above 15.6° C (60° F)Chamber temperature ° CAdjusted TemperatureDegrees ResultMaximum hours to pH 5.3
    102424 - 15.6 =8.48.4 x 10 =  84
    103030 - 15.6 =14.414.4 x 10 = 144
    153535 - 15.6 =19.419.4 x 15 = 291
    Total C degree-hours:519


    The highest temperature reached = 35° C

    The corresponding degree/hour limit = 555 (between 33 and 37° C)

    Conclusion: Process D passes the test because its degree/hours is less than the limit.

    Example E

    It takes 38 hours for product to reach a pH of 5.3 or less. Fermentation room temperature is 24°C for the first 10 hours, 30° C for second 10 hours and 37° C for the final 18 hours.

    Time in C degree-hours above 15.6° C (60° F)Chamber temperature ° CAdjusted TemperatureDegrees ResultMaximum hours to pH 5.3
    102424 - 15.6 =8.48.4 x 10 = 84
    103030 - 15.6 =14.414.4 x 10 = 144
    183737 - 15.6 =21.421.4 x 18 = 385.2

    Total C degree-hours:
    613.2


    The highest temperature reached = 37° C

    The corresponding degree/hour limit = 555 (between 33 and 37° C)

    Conclusion: Process E fails the test because its degree/hours exceeds the limit.

    Quote from The Canadian Food Inspection Agency "Meat Hygiene Manual of Procedures" - Chapter 4:

    (iv) Disposition of lots which have not met degree/hours limits:

    The inspector in charge must be notified of each case where degree/hours limits have been exceeded. Such lots must be held and samples of product submitted for microbiological laboratory examination after the drying period has been completed. Analyses should be done, at least for Staphylococcus aureus and its enterotoxin, and for principal pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, etc.

    • If the bacteriological evaluation proves that there are fewer than 104 Staphylococcus aureus per gram, that neither enterotoxin nor other pathogens are detected, then the product may be sold provided it is labelled as requiring refrigerated storage.

    • In the case of an Staphylococcus aureus level higher than 104 per gram but there is no enterotoxin present, or if other pathogens are present in very low numbers, the product may be used in the production of compatible cooked product but only if the heating process destroys all of the pathogens present.

    • In the case where Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin is detected in the product, irrespective of the level of viable Staphylococcus aureus cells, the product shall be destroyed.

    Safety Options And Examples of Validated Processes


    Prior to 1994 there were no specific rules controlling the manufacture of fermented sausages in the USA. Then, at the end of 1994 about two dozen cases of E.coli 0157:H7 poisoning were reported in the Pacific North West and in Northern California. This outbreak of E.coli 0157:H7 poisoning was attributed to the consumption of dry sausages. More cases associated with E.coli 0157:H7 followed in Australia (1995) and Canada (1998, 1999). To date, outbreaks of E.coli 0157:H7 linked to consumption of dry/semidry fermented sausages have been associated with beef meat ingredients.

    The USDA panicked and following the 1994 US outbreak, a set of stringent regulations was introduced and aimed at commercial producers. In 1966 the final protocol was drafted which requires commercial producers of dry and semidry fermented sausages to follow 1 of 5 safety options:
    1. utilize a heat process as listed in 9 Code of Federal Regulations, 318.17 - achieve a 5-log kill using a heat process (145º F, 63º C) for 4 minutes (5-log kill is the time required to destroy 90% of the organisms present).
    2. include a validated 5 log inactivation treatment.
    3. conduct a "hold and test" program. This option requires finished product testing and is expensive.
    4. propose other approaches to assure 5-log kill.
    5. initiate a hazard analysis critical point (HACCP) system that includes raw batter testing and a 2-log inactivation in fermentation and drying.
    All those options must address Salmonella, Trichinella and Staphylococcus. FSIS expanded the Staphylococcus aureus monitoring program to include E.coli 0157:H7. Since some fermented products are fully cooked, it should be reiterated that thorough cooking destroys E.coli 0157:H7, post process contamination must be avoided. At the same time, it has been concluded that Salmonella may also be found in the resulting product.

    These regulations created a nightmare for little producers and some stopped making fermented products altogether, others removed beef from recipes and others reluctantly started to cook the sausages.

    It is strongly advisable that the reader becomes familiar with the first two options as they can be easily adapted to home conditions. Options 3-5 require in house laboratory testing and will be utilized by commercial meat processors.

    Option 1. Include as part of the manufacture of the sausage, one of the following heat process which is recognized as controlling E.coli 0157:H7.
    Minimum Internal TemperatureMinimum processing time in minutes after the minimum temperature has been reached
    º Fº C
    13054.4121 min
    13155.097 min
    13255.677 min
    13356.162 min
    13456.747 min
    13557.237 min
    13657.832 min
    13758.424 min
    13858.919 min
    13959.515 min
    14060.012 min
    14160.610 min
    14261.18 min
    14361.76 min
    14462.25 min
    14562.84 min

    Option 2. Use a manufacturing process (combination of fermentation, heating, holding and/drying) which has already been scientifically validated to achieve a 5 log kill of E. coli 0157:H7.

    The following processes have been scientifically validated as achieving a 5-log kill or greater reduction of E. coli 0167H:7.

    Fermentation Chamber TemperaturepH at the end of fermentation processCasing diameterSubsequent process (dry, hold or cook)Reference
    º Fº C
    7021> 5.0< 55 mmheat (1 hr @ 110º F and 6 hours @ 125º F)1
    9032< 4.6< 55 mmhold @ 90º F for > 6 days1
    9032< 4.6< 55 mmheat (1 hr @ 110º F, then 6 hrs @ 125º F)1
    9032< 4.656 - 105 mmheat (1 hr at 100º F, 1 hr @ 110º F, 1 hr @ 120º F, then 7 hrs @ 125º F).1
    9032> 5.056 - 105 mmheat (1 hr at 100º F, 1 hr @ 110º F, 1 hr @ 120º F, then 7 hrs @ 125º F).1
    9636< 5.0< 55 mmheat (128º F internal product temperature x 60 minutes) and dry (at 55º F and 65% relative humidity to a moisture protein ratio of < 1.6:1)2
    11043< 4.6< 55 mmhold @ 110º F for > 4 days1
    11043< 4.656 - 105 mmhold @ 110º F for > 4 days1
    11043> 5.056 - 105 mmhold @ 110º F for > 4 days1


    Ref. 1: Nicholson, R., et al, Dry fermented sausages and Escherichia coli 0157:H7. National Cattlemen’s Beef Association, Research Report Number 11-316, Chicago, Illinois, 1996.

    Ref. 2: Hinkens, J.C., et al, Validation of Pepperoni Processes for Control of Escherichia coli 0157:h7, Journal of Food Protection, Volume 59, Number 12, 1996, pp.1260-1266.

    Examples of Validated Processes


    Because there are so many different combinations of factors that impact the safety and stability of fermented sausages, it is hard to come up with one validation study that will apply in each case, A commonly used process that has been validated is to achieve a pH < 5.0, followed by a heat process to achieve 128º F (53.3º C) internal temperature for 1 hour.

    Summer Sausage - the sausage is fermented with a starter culture at 110º F, (43.3º C) until the pH is 4.7 or lower, then cooked to 152º F (66.7º C) internal meat temperature. The final pH 4.4, Aw 0.964.

    Pepperoni - the sausage is fermented with a starter culture at 102º F, (38.9 º C) until the pH is 5.7 or lower, then cooked to 128º F (53.3º C) internal meat temperature. The final pH 4.7, Aw 0.896.

    In the majority of cases fermented sausages are made from a combination of pork and beef. Using safety option 1 or 2 takes care of E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella. Cold temperature, cleanliness and proper sanitation procedures take care of Listeria monocytogenes. Nevertheless, pork must be taken care of as it may be contaminated with trichinae. If pork meat was not previously frozen according to the government standards for destruction of Trichinae, it must be heat treated:
    Heat treatment to ensure destruction of Trichinella in pork
    Minimum internal temperatureMinimum time in minutes
    º Fº C
    1305460
    1315530
    1335615
    135576
    136583
    138592
    140601
    142611
    144621
    14563instant

    It can be noted (Option 1 above) that the heat treatment of the sausage for destruction of E. coli 0157:H7 will take care of trichinae as well.
     
  4. jomama

    jomama Newbie

    The package actually says for slow (traditional) and fast acidification based on temp used during fermentation. It doesn't say for how long. I guess I could go with whatever the recipe calls for. It just seemed like each recipe had a wide range of fermenting times.
     
  5. atomicsmoke

    atomicsmoke Master of the Pit OTBS Member

    90F is on the high side....I would go for a shorter time.
     
  6. jomama

    jomama Newbie

    Oh wow that is a lot of reading. I will probably print this out and study. Thank you it is very interesting and all my friends eating my finished product will also thank you

    Jomama 
     
  7. jomama

    jomama Newbie

    I can lower that temp also. I thought 90 was a little high also
     
  8. daveomak

    daveomak Smoking Guru OTBS Member SMF Premier Member

    Temperature is totally dependent on the culture you use...   Time is also dependent on that culture...    It does have a range where it works best...   Remember, you are trying to grow a bacteria culture and it needs an environment that it loves to grow in...   What YOU want may not be compatible with the culture.....
     
  9. atomicsmoke

    atomicsmoke Master of the Pit OTBS Member

    Butcher packer shows a wide range for f-lc. 90F is in the middle. Don't have to lower it.
     
  10. jomama

    jomama Newbie

    I read the article and understand the formula used. So my next question is how do I know when the Ph level is 5.3 I obviously don't have a Ph tester. The only Ph levels I ever tested was on liquids with the strips in a test kit. Any easy suggestions?

    Jomama
     
  11. daveomak

    daveomak Smoking Guru OTBS Member SMF Premier Member

    Some say pH test strip  paper works....   others don't....   Sooooooo, if you have used the proper amounts of cure, salt, culture, glucose etc., the time / temp / humidity tables should make the meat the correct pH....    It's just one of those chemistry things...   it pretty much has to work...   If you change any of the ingredients, there's a possibility the pH won't be where it's supposed to be...   Soooo, I would follow the directions exactly as printed...  

    Others may have altered the recipe and found the PH falls in line... 

    Someone on here found some pH paper designed for fermenting meats and it has a narrow range... 

    How to......

    [​IMG] .. ..[​IMG]

    pH testing paper strips made by: http://www.microessentiallab.com Micro Essential Laboratory, Inc.

    To use, mix 1 part finely chopped meat and 2 parts distilled water, tear off a strip of pH paper, dip into test solution, and match immediately to color chart. No technical training is necessary.

    The Sausage Maker has the pH strips below....

    pHydrion pH Strips (3.9-5.7 Range)

    pHydrion pH Strips (4.9-6.9 Range)
     
  12. jomama

    jomama Newbie

    Thanks for the tip. I found some on amazon that go to 6.0 so I will try your 2 parts distilled 1 part meat plan.

    Jomama
     
  13. daveomak

    daveomak Smoking Guru OTBS Member SMF Premier Member

    Which strips were they...   You got a number ??
     
  14. daveomak

    daveomak Smoking Guru OTBS Member SMF Premier Member

    I found these on Amazon....    3.6 - 6.1 pH....





     
    Last edited: Jun 30, 2016
  15. daveomak

    daveomak Smoking Guru OTBS Member SMF Premier Member

    Cool...   that will give you an idea on the pH...  

    When doing the pH test, cleanliness is next to heaven....   Distilled water has no buffering capacity....  the meat has no buffering capacity....

    Therefore, ANY contamination will severely affect the results...   soaps are alkaline and any residue will shoot the pH upward toward 7 ....

    All of that is "just so you know"....
     
  16. jomama

    jomama Newbie

    thanks for the help. 

    Jomama
     
  17. ella rollins

    ella rollins Newbie

    awesome tips.. Thanks for sharing
     

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